To understand these issues, a public health expert Svyatoslav Linnikov especially for Ukrainian Information Service talked to the professor Victor Dosenko, head of the department of the Institute of Physiology. Worshipers of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
The European Medical Agency has announced a possible connectionи between thrombosis and AstraZeneca vaccine. This caused an information wave, including in Ukraine. Really whether there is a risk of thrombosis after vaccination preparation from AstraZeneca?
In my opinion, this information is somehow strangely presented. Adverse effects are possible with any vaccination, as well as in general from any drug. This is normal and not a catastrophe. If something works, there will be side effects. Vaccines, like any other drug, can have side effects, only their frequency. This is what we need to emphasize. There were 37 cases of thrombosis per 7 million vaccinations. We consider the risk: one chance for 460 vaccinations. This is a meager percentage.
Anyone takes a much higher risk just by leaving the house. Yes, leaving the house you are already taking a risk. Don't leave the house! As Brodsky said, "Don't leave the room, don't make a mistake." Because there is a very high probability of dying when you get on a bike, or buy yourself a pizza, or eat some chebureks. Here the risk is much more simple to die during the day, for example from endotoxic shock. And when do you get on a plane or a train? And the car? The car in general is the cause of death of a huge number of people every day. And, according to statistics, the car is extremely dangerous. Never get in a car, because it dramatically increases the risk of death! However, this does not stop anyone, WHO and European agencies do not inform the people of Odessa about the dangers of food or any other action.
Therefore, in fact, calculate the ratio of benefits to possible harm. As in many other cases, for all vaccines we get a colossal benefit, a colossal predominance of what we get. And, by the way, the benefit is not only for you, but also for the whole society. It is important not to forget, because when you take the drug, you take it for yourself, others do little good. However, when you get vaccinated, it is good for everyone. Because this is how we all come together to form a collective immunity.
Thrombosis has become one of the most common complications of coronavirus infection. What is it connected with? Is there a real link between coronavirus infection and an increased risk of thrombosis?
This is true - during a coronavirus infection, of course, there is a violation of blood clotting. A decrease in the number of platelets is also determined. This, in my opinion and in the opinion of other scientists, is due to the activation of neutrophilic extracellular traps. This is the process of neutrophils emitting their own DNA. This phenomenon was described in 2004 Arthur Zhikhlinsky.
Neutrophils are components of the normal blood formula. It is these neutrophilic granulocytes that can commit such an act of self-sacrifice when they are surrounded by too many enemies. And in this case it is a high concentration of RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Viral RNA activates neutrophils, and they explode with their own DNA. This occurs in the lungs with corresponding consequences.
They also circulate throughout the body. Imagine the scale of the catastrophe, when a 15-meter strand of a DNA molecule comes out of a cell with a diameter of 2 microns. Namely, it has such a length. To be honest, it's even hard for me to imagine these 15 micrometers, when a colossal molecule the size of 2 meters breaks out in all directions.
Of course, the virus will not get there because it is almost not in the blood. However, our platelets and other blood cells - leukocytes and erythrocytes - will get there. This is how a blood clot appears. If the thrombolytic system works well, it can be removed quickly. And if it did not work, then there will be a blockage of blood vessels. The consequences will depend on where this clot forms and blocks the blood circulation. It can be an important part of the brain, it can be a kidney or a coronary artery.
Therefore, the coronavirus does increase the likelihood of developing thrombosis. But the coronavirus vaccine has virtually no effect on any thrombosis. Just one case per 460 vaccinations was registered.
Can a person have an increased tendency to thrombosis? Is it possible to predict such a state through analysis?
Of course, maybe - such a condition is scientifically called thrombophilia, that is, love of blood clots. They can be both hereditary and acquired. Probably all patients know about hereditary, because they appear in childhood. But the acquired ones are another, more complicated situation. A person may not know anything about their tendency to thrombosis, but it is and continues to increase throughout life.
It is quite simple to determine. There is, for example, the method of coagulometry and a number of tests to detect the ability of blood to coagulate at different stages - prothrombin and thrombin time. This is what any laboratory does. A more detailed analysis of coagulograms is done in specialized clinics, if at the first stage found signs that the blood has a greater ability to coagulate.
All these processes are very well studied and you just need to use and monitor coagulation while taking anticoagulants. It has probably been a year since we realized that anticoagulants are needed by people with severe covida and after an infection. Therefore, different types of anticoagulants with different mechanisms of action are widely prescribed. Here they must be prescribed under the control of coagulograms, because they act in the opposite direction. In case of overdose, they cause bleeding. And from blood clots you can die, and from bleeding, too. Therefore, our life is to maintain harmony and balance. This is what I am calling for.
Is it also possible to predict a violent reaction of neutrophils?
Regarding neutrophils - a more difficult question. We have proposed such a method, and now we are going to implement it. With special equipment and reagents, it is possible to determine the content of extracellular DNA, or circulating DNA in blood plasma. 90% of human plasma DNA comes from neutrophils. Because in other blood cells - erythrocytes and thrombocytes - there is no DNA. Therefore, almost all DNA in plasma is taken from neutrophils, which are 60-70% of all leukocytes. And they are the ones who are able to release this DNA. Therefore, measuring this extracellular DNA is not a problem.
However, to detect these rather small concentrations, special devices are needed - spectrofluorimeters. We conducted our research on such a device and are currently preparing a publication. However, we later learned that there are no such devices in the laboratories of hospitals at all. They do not use them for their analysis. Therefore, the situation is such that there is a method, but in fact it can be done only by individual scientific institutions, where these devices are available - spectrofluorimeters. Of course, we recommend buying such devices, but it is not cheap. Therefore, in fact, today in Ukraine we do not have widely available methods for assessing the activity of neutrophils for the population.
This is not the first time that controversy has arisen over the AstraZeneca vaccine. Vaccination with this vaccine was stopped, then resumed. Were there similar situations with other vaccines?
Controversy has arisen over various vaccines, both around Pfizer and around Moderna. Perhaps more information about the AstraZeneca vaccine is due to the fact that it is used in more countries and has a strong production. Other vaccines can only dream of the amount of vaccine that Serum Institute India is ready to produce. They are ready to make hundreds of millions of doses.
I don't think there is a special conspiracy or work against this vaccine. There is a normal international practice of quality control, when no one keeps silent. Everything is reported. If there is information that needs to be investigated, vaccination can be suspended, then resumed. Relevant bodies, such as WHO and the European Union, monitor and report and draw conclusions. Therefore, at any time, if a possible threat is identified, the population will be protected from danger. This line has been chosen, and it is adequate.
Sometimes it even seems to me that such unverified primary information should not be broadcast. However, this is rather just our problem, our society. We have too many anti-vaccines and people who for some reason are not going to get vaccinated. This is too many of us who do not agree to be vaccinated under any circumstances. For them, the European information space creates just a terrible situation. Now a huge number of people under the influence of this information will believe that the vaccine kills.
But I really hope that the people of Odessa are not like that, and at the first opportunity to get vaccinated they will go and get vaccinated. Because vaccinations are our pass to the future civilized world.